Prevalence and Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease among Saudi Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Author(s): Masoud Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Manal Abdulaziz Murad, Reem Mohammed Alshiakh, Hoda Jehad Abousada*, Mohammed Bandar Alharbi, Rawiah Abubkr Almehdhar, Turki Saad Aljuhani, Abdullah Mohammed H Alsobyei, Abdulrahman Hussain Alharbi, Ghanem Ahmed AL Ghanem, Saud Ali Alharbi, Abdulaziz Shelash Alonezi, Rashed Saleh A Alghamdi, Razan Talal Almowllad, Fatimah Mohammed Alfaqih
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises a group of diseases that affect the digestive system and, due to wave-like inflammation, lead to long-term complaints in the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhoea with blood or mucus in the stool, abdominal pain and symptoms from other organ systems. This inflammation is due to an excessive reaction of the immune system to the body's own germs or cells that are normally in the intestine. The trigger for this reaction remains unclear, despite intensive research, and is most likely multifactorial. So far there is no definitive therapy. There are a number of drugs available that primarily suppress inflammation and prevent complications from developing. In severe cases, surgical interventions are also an option. The two basic diseases that together make up about 90% of inflammatory bowel disease cases are: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study to spot light on the prevalence and complications of IBD among Saudi Population. The study was carried out at universities, hospitals and malls in KSA. Data were collected from IBD patients and general population during a period from June to October 2021. Results: Among the 776 participants, 490 were females (63.1%) and the rest are males. Regarding the age group, most of the participants were from 18-24 years (n=247, 31.8%). From the participants, 138 were smoking; at the time of data collection, (17.8%) and 40 were ex-smokers (5.2%). About (n=84, 10.8%) from the participants were diagnosed with IBD; 31% of them have Crohn's disease, and 69% have Ulcerative colitis. The peak age group for Crohn’s disease was 35-44 years while for ulcerative colitis was 25-34. For symptoms of IBD, the change in appetite is more significant among females while mouth or stomach ulcers is more significant for older age groups; and weight loss is significant for both females and older age groups. Osteoporosis is more significant for females while perforation and B 12 malabsorption is more significant among older age groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of IBD among the selected group of patients was relatively low. It was noticed that the patients with Ulcerative colitis were younger than patients with Crohn's disease; with overall female predominance for both Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The selected patients were suffering from many symptoms; the most common symptoms were joint manifestations, eye manifestations, and abdominal pain.