Reviewing Publication Discussing the Frequency of ABO and Rhesus-D Blood Groups in Saudi Arabia
Background: Since the discovery of the blood group in 1901 by Karl Landsteiner, the ABO grouping became an essential element in blood transfusion, followed by the Rh blood group system, which was discovered in 1940 by Landsteiner and Wiener. These two systems are considered the most clinically significant blood groups due to the high immunogenicity of their antigens and the naturally occurring antibodies for the ABO system. Knowledge of the ABO and Rh blood groups distribution is necessary to recruit voluntary blood donors. Additionally, building an effective management unit inventory at both the regional and national levels is also required. Identifying these blood groups, ABO and Rh antigens, are vital for planning effective strategies for transfusion. Objective: This study aims to review the literature on the distribution and frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups in Saudi Arabia and critically assess several standards followed by the selected research, including the sample size, represent ability of the Saudi Arabian population, and the availability of ethical approval. Materials and Methods: A computerized systematic literature search was conducted among the PubMed and google scholar search engines using the following keywords: ABO blood group, RhD blood group, Saudi Arabia, and worldwide, to determine the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in Saudi blood donors. Results and Conclusion: 32 publications were included in the current study, and the results indicated that most of the blood donors in Saudi Arabia were male. The most common blood group phenotype was O (51+8%), followed by A (27+4%), B (18+8%), and AB (4+2%). The majority of the blood donors were RhD positive (92+2%). The Frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups in this study were similar to the worldwide incidence. However, there was an insignificant difference between the researches. For these reasons, producing publications on blood groups should be considered and corroborated by the Saudi health authorities on a large scale.