Study of Cardiac Changes in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anaemia and its Correlation
Author(s): Vimlesh Patidar, Ashish Sharma, Mustafa MalvI*, Ajay Adhikari and Ajay Prakash Tripathi
Introduction: Iron deficiency is the commonest nutritional deficiency worldwide; it is the most common type of microcytic anemia. Aim: To study the cardiac profile in patients with iron deficiency anemia and to evaluate in detail the electrocardiography and echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Methods: An observational study in patients with iron deficiency anemia aged >18 years. All diagnosed cases underwent electrocardiography and 2D-echocardiography studies, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 140 patients with iron deficiency anaemia were enrolled in which females were 93 with a mean age of 37.34 ± 11.46 and males were 47 with a mean age of 37.9 ± 13.2. Out of all cases which turned out to be positive for electrocardiography showing ST-segment changes, majority 80.2% had ST-segment depression. In t wave morphology changes, 94.1% showed inversion. Among 45 cases of severe anemia, 44 had echocardiography findings suggestive of enlarged cardiac chambers whereas only 27 cases out of 95 in moderate anemia category showed similar findings. There was statistically significant association with severity of Iron deficiency anemia with abnormality in echocardiography parameters like left Ventricular mass, left ventricular internal dimension-systole, left ventricular internal dimension-diastole, right ventricular internal dimension-systole with significant 2 tailed Pearson Correlation coefficient p<0.01 Conclusion: Our study found that majority of the patients with Iron deficiency anaemia is having electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes. Cardiovascular complications of anaemia can be easily diagnosed with these investigations which ultimately help in making necessary plan for appropriate treatment.