Usage of Synthetic Nanoparticles in Masking of White Spot Dental Lesion
Aim: This research aimed to estimate the potential impact of CaO nanoparticles at different concentrations on the remineralization of enamel undergoing cariogenic attack.
Materials and methods: Eighteen enamel samples were prepared from sound molars to measure its calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) before and after exposure to cariogenic attack and treatment with saturated gum of 100% CaO nanoparticles (Group 1), 50% CaO nanoparticles (Group 2), and artificial saliva (Group 3). The research data were statistically analysed using the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests.
Results and discussion: Group 1 of treatment with 100% CaO nanoparticles demonstrated the largest content of Ca (77.8 wt % ± 9.6) followed by Group 2 and 3 (66.6 wt% ± 1.5, 64.4 wt% ± 1.9, respectively). Conversely, Group 1 had the lowest amount of P (18.9 wt% ± 3.9) followed by Group 3 and 2 (29.9 wt% ± 1.4, 31.0 wt% ± 1.1, respectively). The demineralization is a reversible process which starts with Ca loss before P loss, so it is logical to use a recalcifying agent (Ca containing agent) to enhance the recalcification and regrowth of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals where the P could be driven from the saliva. CaO is rich with bioavailable Ca contents, favouring the remineralization of caries lesions. Furthermore, as the CaO applied in a nano-size particle, it has the ability to diffuse actively through the tiny spaces of the etched enamel.
Conclusion: The use of saturated gum with CaO nanoparticles could overcome the cariogenic challenge. The Ca uptake increased with the increased concentration of applied CaO nanoparticles.