ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTI-ADHERENCE AND ANTIBIOFILM EFFECTS OF PETROSELINUM CRISPUM AND AZADIRACHTA INDICA AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUINIS AND STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS
Author(s): Zaleha Shafiei, Nur Insyirah Mohamad Nor, Khairunnisa Hanifah, Kristina Soosay Selvam, Alida Mahyuddin*
Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) are known for their antibacterial activities. The potential of these two extracts as an organic mouthwash has not been widely studied. Objective: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial, anti-adherence and antibiofilm activities of Parsley and Neem extracts against commensal Streptococcus sanguinis (early colonizer) and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (late colonizer). Fresh leaves of Petroselinum crispum and Azadirachta indica were cleansed, boiled and extracted using the aqueous extraction method. The decoction was centrifuged, filtered, and lyophilized to obtain sterile dried crude extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the broth microdilution method. The anti-adherence and antibiofilm activities at MIC and sub-MIC values were quantified using crystal violet dye on a 96-well microtiter plate. The MIC values of Petroselinum crispum against Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans were 256 mg/ml and 128 mg/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, the MIC values of Azadirachta indica against Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans were 128 mg/ml and 64 mg/ml, respectively. The MBC values of both extracts were 512 mg/ml against both bacteria. The anti-adherence and antibiofilm activities of Azadirachta indica and Petroselinum crispum were observed in both bacteria and their effects were higher against Streptococcus mutans than Streptococcus sanguinis. Azadirachta indica and Petroselinum crispum possess antibacterial, anti-adherence and antibiofilm properties against Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans, and could be used as alternatives to chemical mouthwash in preventing dental caries.