Causes and Patterns of Traumatic Mandibular and Maxillofacial Fractures in Saudi Arabia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Aims: to assess the demographic distribution, causes and types of mandibular-maxillofacial (MM) traumatic fractures in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: Several databases were searched for reports on MM factures in the KSA. Variables collected from articles that met inclusion criteria were: age, gender, city in KSA, cause and site of facial trauma. Results: 19 of 41 articles were eligible for data collection. Most subjects were male, 6,416 (23.5%) and >18 years old, 4,067 (56.8%). Of 8,981 fractures, there were 504 (5.6%) dentoalveolar, 1,867 (20.8%) zygomatico-maxillary complex, and 4,314 (48.0%) mandibular- with condylar fracture being the most frequent mandibular fracture, 969 (10.8%). Motor-vehicle accident (MVA) was the leading cause of MM fracture in KSA with pooled prevalence of 55.5% (39.0%-71.3%, I2=99.4%). Mandibular fracture was the most common site of fracture with pooled prevalence of 45.2% (35.5%-55.1%, I2=98.5%). Conclusion: Fracture of the mandible is the most common type of fracture and MVA remains the main cause of MM trauma. Young male adults comprise the majority of demographics. Medical studies on this topic lag behind recently published non-medical reports that take into account the implementation of stringent seatbelt and speed laws, and recently-allowed female driving in KSA.