Smoking Causes Obstructive Changes in Routine Spirometry
Objective: Chronic obstructive lung diseases are caused by Smoking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the obstructive changes of lungs in spirometry caused by smoking. Methodology: This was a case control study conducted at Ghazi goth, more than 5 kms from New Subzi mandi (case area) by using non probability convenient sampling technique. The duration of study was about 6 months from August 2019 till Jan 2020. Sample size was 245. 100 subjects were residents of ghazi goth taken with age, socioeconomic strata & BMI while the 145 workers belong to vegetable market new Subzi mandi Karachi (case group). Males with age of 18 to 60 years, Residents of area more than 5 km away from vegetable market were included in the study. Three pulmonary function parameters such as FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were evaluated in routine Spirometry. Chi square and independent t-test was applied. Results: The study results showed that baseline characteristics between both groups has insignificant association i.e. age, weight, BMI, hours of working & duration since working. While height has significant association, the workers of vegetable market were taller. Control group indulge more in smoking (53.77 ± 6.14) than case group (36.68 ± 3.42) (pack years of smoking has significant association (p<0.05). Mean of FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in first second) found subnormal in this group (75 ± 25.8). Mean of FVC% (forced vital capacity) significantly reduced (p=0.000) in control group (90 ± 36.1) as compared to case group 122.4 ± 74.7. Conclusion: This study concluded that smoking is associated with obstructive changes in lung in routine spirometry. Furthermore, predicted forced vital capacity was significantly reduced in control group than case group owing to smoking was more indulge in control group.