Ruqaya Nangrejo

Department of Physiology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan


  • Research   
    Smoking Causes Obstructive Changes in Routine Spirometry
    Author(s): Muhammad Ali*, Ruqaya Nangrejo, Saba Abrar, Adnan Anwar, Asma Bilquis and Qamer Aziz

    Objective: Chronic obstructive lung diseases are caused by Smoking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the obstructive changes of lungs in spirometry caused by smoking. Methodology: This was a case control study conducted at Ghazi goth, more than 5 kms from New Subzi mandi (case area) by using non probability convenient sampling technique. The duration of study was about 6 months from August 2019 till Jan 2020. Sample size was 245. 100 subjects were residents of ghazi goth taken with age, socioeconomic strata & BMI while the 145 workers belong to vegetable market new Subzi mandi Karachi (case group). Males with age of 18 to 60 years, Residents of area more than 5 km away from vegetable market were included in the study. Three pulmonary function parameters such as FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were evaluated in routine Spirometry. Chi square and independent t-test was ap.. Read More»

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