The Corona Chronicle from History TO Hitherto: A Dental Outlook
COVID-19 has a global outbreak since its discovery in Hubei province, China in December 2019. Following this it had been declared as a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” on 30th January 2020 by the World health Organization (WHO). Corona viridae, the causative species that is not new to the society yet poses serious threat to life in under developed to welldeveloped nations. First occurrence of such enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses with club shaped projections was cited back in 1930’s attributing to cause respiratory infection in domesticated chickens. The human corona viral illness was eminently noted around 1960’s wherein healthy human volunteers were relied on to detect the virus involved in the causation of common cold, an infection of the upper respiratory tract. Tracing back the etiology of such sickness, emergence from the bats and transmission and adaptation in other mammals have occurred which had further led to extensive layout of the malady. It was after the year 2003 when the human population was heavily affected, these infections were thrown to limelight indicating the fierce nature of this mutated subspecies. Since then so many disease variants have been identified including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), the Middle Eastern Respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), Bat corona virus (RaTG13) and the COVID 19 (The novel coronavirus- initially named to be SARS-CoV-2). Not just the upper respiratory tract anymore, this disease had turned out to be more aggressive affecting the entire system causing a complete shutdown. Knowing the various possible modes of spread of this contagious disease, dental fraternity poses most risk due to transmission through contact, especially the aerosols. But the atypical nature of this virus, with increasing number of mutated subspecies no possibility exists in using a routine antiviral drug to completely eradicate this infection. Diagnostics can play an important role in the containment of COVID-19, enabling the rapid implementation of control measures that limit the spread through case identification, isolation, and contact tracing. This chapter focuses on the epidemiological report, the pathogenesis involved and the sequalae of occurrence of coronal viral disease in humans with an update on the recent one, a brief overview of various diagnostic tools utilized including Molecular assays, Nucleic acid testing (RT-PCR), CT Scans and a dental outlook on how the spread occurs along with methods by which dental setup could be immunized to intercept any further viral ailment.